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Induced apnea enhances image quality and visualization of cardiopulmonary anatomic during cardiac CTA in children

Publication
Philips CT Clinical Science Philips Healthcare • USA

Chakravarthy M, Sunilkumar G, Pargaonkar S, Hosur R, Harivelam C, Kavaraganahalli D, Srinivasan P.

* This article was originally published in the April - June 2015 edition of the Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia.
Objective
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT) angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases.

Methods
Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past three years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the "apnea group" were compared with those in "non-apnea group." After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored.

Results
We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another ten without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U, Fischer's exact test and Pearson's Chi-square test). In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33) of the studies, while in the "no apnea group," only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%). In the non-apnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in contrast to non-apnea group (P < 0.000).

Conclusion
The image quality of cardiac CT angiography greatly improves, and motion artifact significantly decreases with the use of induced apnea in pediatrics patients being evaluated for congenital heart disease. This technique poses no additional morbidity of significance.
For more information about this publication, check out the PubMed listing for this article.


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Publication
Brilliance 64-channel
artifacts, Cardiac, Congenital heart disease, contrast, contrast-enhanced, coronary angiography, coronary arteries, ECG-gated, image quality, Pediatric, Vascular
 

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