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T2* (T2 star) calculation of the myocardium

Springorum, Rudolf Philips Healthcare

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ExamCard Purpose

This ExamCard contains two versions of a cardiac triggered black blood dual echo scan that can be used  to calculate T2* values of the myocardium.


This black blood dual echo cardiac triggered TFE scan was developed to meet the requirements for T2* calculation. The resolution is kept low just to aim for the best possible signal to noise. Because the T2* values are derived from two sample points, the signal-to-noise ratio needs to be good. For the same reason the water-fat shift is set at maximum. Both TE's are chosen such that water and fat are precisely in phase, just to avoid any influence from intra voxel water and fat de-phasing. At 1.5T the TE's are set to 4.6 ms and 9.2 ms. At longer TE's the signal of flowing blood gets disturbed and flow artifacts start to appear. For this reason a dual inversion black blood pulse - to cancel the signal of blood completely - is added to the sequence. The scan is cardiac triggered and the TFE shot is kept reasonably short to avoid any cardiac motion. The whole scan is performed in a single breath-hold or free breathing using a navigator. Both protocols are available in this ExamCard.


First echo (4.6 ms) Second echo (9.2 ms)
First echo (4.6 ms)
Second echo (9.2 ms)


Although the method presented minimizes the influences of motion, water and fat out-of-phase effects and inflow effects, the accuracy of T2* measurements can be limited by other effects that influence the signal intensities of both echoes. 

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May 29, 2005

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Achieva 1.5T, Intera 1.5T
Release 1, Release 11
Cardiac, Cardiac Morphology, Function Cine, Pediatric

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